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基于载荷谱提升转向架构架疲劳可靠性研究
作者:王斌杰 孙守光     
单位:北京交通大学 机械与电子控制工程学院,北京 100044
关键词:疲劳 可靠性 构架 载荷谱 损伤 
分类号:
出版年·卷·期(页码):2019·41·第2期(23-30)
摘要:

铁路客车转向架构架在服役过程中,首先在横侧梁连接区域发生疲劳裂纹。经多次局部补强,构架仍存在疲劳可靠性不足的状况。这一现象表明:真实运用载荷未能成为构架设计的输入条件,构架设计时所用抗疲劳设计规范中的载荷规定尚不能完全针对目前车辆的真实运用环境,有必要开展实际运用环境下的构架载荷研究,从而提升构架的疲劳可靠性,确保运用安全。构建高精度测力构架,建立构架载荷系与疲劳控制部位的损伤传递关系;将测力构架换装到实际运用车辆,在裂纹发生比例高的线路多次往返跟踪测试,获得构架载荷系-时间历程与构架疲劳控制部位的动应力;建立用于提升构架疲劳可靠性的载荷谱;通过系统施加补强结构和持续优化补强结构细部形式分析载荷谱作用下的构架疲劳控制区域应力,完成构架优化改进。线路验证测试结果表明,构架疲劳可靠性得到系统性提升。

During the service life of the speed increased passenger car bogies,the connecting part of the cross and side beams would generate fatigue cracks first.Despite repeated local reinforcements,insufficient reliability of bogie frame still remains.This demonstrates that the actual operation loads are not the input condition of bogie design,and the load standards of bogie frame specified by the anti-fatigue design specifications cannot fully cover the actual operation environment of the current vehicles.Therefore,it is necessary to study the bogie loads under the actual operation environment to improve the fatigue reliability of bogie frame to ensure operation safety.In this paper,a high-precision test frame was calibrated to establish the fatigue damage transfer relationship between the frame load systems and the fatigue control parts.The test frame was installed in an operating train,and multiple round-trip tracking tests were conducted on the track lines where cracks occurred frequently to obtain the load-time history and dynamic stress of the fatigue control parts of the frame.After that the load spectrum was established to improve the reliability of bogie frame.Besides,the stress of the frame fatigue control parts extracted from the load spectrum was also decreased by the application and continuously optimization of reinforcing structure to complete the bogie frame structure optimization.At last,the results of the track test show that the reliability of the bogie frame is improved systematically.

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