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高速列车空心轴表面裂纹前缘应力强度因子解析模型
作者:周素霞1 2 卢术娟1 2 赵兴晗1 2 王宇桐1 2 郭子豪1 2 
单位:1.北京建筑大学 机电与车辆工程学院,北京 100044;2.北京建筑大学 城市轨道交通车辆服役性能保障北京市重点实验室,北京 100044
关键词:空心轴 表面裂纹 应力强度因子 解析模型 解析法 狗万要实名制;
分类号:
出版年·卷·期(页码):2019·41·第2期(64-69)
摘要:

高速列车运行中其车轴可能受到硬物的高速冲击造成缺口,由于缺口所造成的应力集中会在车轴表面萌生疲劳裂纹,如果没有及时发现而继续使用,车轴会受到扰动载荷的作用,导致表面裂纹不断扩展,直至发生断裂。对车轴的疲劳断裂问题进行研究时,可通过应力强度因子进行断裂安全分析。由于空心轴的使用越来越广泛,其裂纹扩展问题也成为了研究的重点。空心车轴与实心车轴相比,表面裂纹情况更加复杂,无法利用已有公式计算出应力强度因子的解。通过对实心轴表面裂纹应力强度因子解析式进行修正,得出空心轴表面裂纹应力强度因子,将其与Carpinteri通过有限单元法得到的应力强度因子进行比较。结果表明,空心轴半椭圆表面裂纹应力强度因子解析模型具有较高的精度,为空心轴裂纹扩展的进一步研究提供了参考。

During the running of the high-speed train,the vehicle axles may be impacted by hard objects at high speed to form a notch.The stress concentration due to the notch will cause fatigue cracks on the axle surface.If the cracks are not found in time and the use of the axle continues,the axle will be affected by the disturbance load,which will cause the surface cracks continue to propagate until a break occurs.During the study of the fatigue fracture problem of the axle,the fracture strength analysis can be performed by the stress intensity factor.Due to the increasing use of hollow shafts,the problem of crack propagation has also become an important issue.However,given the more complex surface crack of the hollow shaft,compared with the solid shaft,no existing formula can be used to calculate the solution to stress intensity factor.By modifying the analytic expressions of stress intensity factors for surface crack of solid shaft,the stress intensity factor for surface crack of the hollow shaft was obtained and compared with that obtained by Carpinteri’s finite element method.The results show that the analytical model of the stress intensity factor of the hollow axle semi elliptical surface crack is of high accuracy,and the correctness of the analytical model is verified.It provides a reference for further research on crack propagation in hollow shaft.

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